Posts Tagged ‘sulphur’

Laundry Farm Canyon – Revealed…..#7 (the 50’s)

June 18, 2017

Laundry Farm Canyon Map

In the 1st thru 3rd grades at Burckhalter Elementary it was called ‘show & tell” but in Mr. Hayden’s 4th grade class it was an opportunity for someone to share an experience of the past weekend.  Steve Graham stood before the class telling Mike’s classmates about the  hills above his house and following Leona Creek that fed Mills College’s Green Lake, (lake Aliso) up to the abandoned sulphur mines and old quarry called Devil’s Punch Bowl.  Just the mention of the Creek, abandon mines and a quarry named Devil Punchbowl sparked a Mike’s sense of adventure and to think that it was all within hiking distance.  Although classmates, Steve wasn’t in Mike’s circle of friends but Karl Kreplin and Roger Monroe that live in Leona Heights near Steve were.  Mike later visiting with Karl and Roger about what Steve had said, the two nonchalantly saying they had been there.  Mike couldn’t let go of  what Steve had shared with the class about the Sulphur Mines and Devils Punchbowl talking to Roger about wanting to see for himself, his friend listened but was hesitant in making a commitment to show him.  Mike recognized that Roger was somewhat different, rather quiet and reserved, never exhibiting a lot of enthusiasm about much of anything,  ascribing his demeanor to his health, he was exempt from P.E.,  Roger telling him it was because of a heart problem attributed to rheumatic fever.  He understood Roger situation having been thru a medical episode earlier in his life,  Roger finally agreeing to meet with him and show him what Steve had talked about in class.

Steve Graham and Karl Kreplin

(The amazing history of Leona Heights, Laundry Farm Canyon History ) – Nestled in the foothills of central east Oakland was what later became known as Leona Heights and Laundry Farm Canyon.  The native Huchiun Ohlone Indians having established a village deep in the redwoods above the bay inlet with its full-flowing spring-water creeks cascading down from the hillsides in the fog-draped forest of the redwood evergreen giants.  Spanish explorers passed within a half-mile of Laundry Farm Canyon and in the late 1700’s Missionaries and  Spanish Californios would settle in the area.

On August 3, 1820 Spanish governor of California,  Pablo Vicente de Solá presented Don Luís María Peralta a land grant of 44,800-acre embracing the sites of the east bay cities of San Leandro, Oakland, Alameda, Emeryville, Piedmont, Berkeley, and Albany.  With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed at the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848 and with California becoming a state in 1850, the U.S. Federal Land Act required the Spanish Californios to prove their land titles in court.  By 1879 all that remained of Don Luís son Antonio Peralta 16,067 acres inherited from his dad was 23 acres, the years of attorney fee’s having pillaged the estate.

Sadly in 1840’s, logging started in the redwood-covered hills in and just beyond Laundry Farm Canyon and within 20 years,  men numbering 400 at their peak had logged out the entire redwood forest.   In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon began developing what is now downtown Oakland and on May 4, 1852,  the Town of Oakland was incorporated, two years later in 1854 it was re-incorporated as The City of Oakland.

Mills Seminary 1889

In the 1850’s Pliny Bartlett, a recent San Francisco businessman decided to go into the laundry business, associating himself with George H. Hallett and P. E. Dalton. Their idea was to establish a white labor laundry,  at that time being almost exclusively operated by the  Chinese.  Bartlett and his associates ferried the laundry from the numerous San Francisco hotels across the Bay to the southeastern end of Alameda. The laundry was then hauled up the hill to the spring water fed Horseshoe branch of Leona Creek, where it was washed, bleached and dried on the grass, the hillside area becoming referenced to as Laundry Farm Canyon.  In the 1860’s the Laundry enterprise moved to West Oakland, the redwood forest logged out, the hillsides of Laundry Farm Canyon and Leona Creek were now sparsely populated but that would change when Cyrus and Susan Mills bought  55-acres of pasture and a cottage alongside Leona Creek.  Mrs. Mills an educator who had operated The Young Ladies Seminary of Benicia, moved it to Oakland,  building Mills Seminary on the south end of Laundry Farm Canyon bordering Leona Creek, the creek being dammed to form tiny Lake Aliso as flood control for the school.

The Laundry Farm Canyon Hotel

In 1876,  a flat hilltop site above the canyon, referred to as Observatory Hill becoming a popular picnic spot, a foot trail led high up above the creek to the meadow on top of the hill with a 360 degree view all around.   an enterprising man named Lane ran 4-horse-drawn canopy sightseeing tour buses up the hill.  Later in 1887 the Laundry Farm Railroad was built across the Mills property, the incorporated Mills Seminary, now renamed Mills College. The railroad continued north into the Laundry Farm Canyon across the creek from where the original laundry shack had stood,  a Car Barn being build where the trains were switched and stored.  With the scenic area becoming a major attraction the 3-story Laundry Farm Hotel was built in 1892 a quarter-mile east of the Car Barn on a 200-acre site on the south bank of Leona Creek on the opposite side of the Observatory Hill.  The railway track from the Car Barn was extended to provide service to the hotel.  The hotel suffering a fire in 1897, being rebuilt, the train service and tracks to the hotel removed in 1902, the track beds becoming roadways, but the hotel experiencing second fire in 1907 was not rebuilt.

Francis Marion ‘Borax’ Smith

Miles of tunnels

 The Leona Heights sulphur mines began operation east of the Laundry Farm Canyon 1906, the project of  Francis Marion 20 Mule Team’Borax’ Smith  a Oakland businessman and civic leader born in Richmond, Wisconsin in 1846. He left Wisconsin at the age of 21, to prospect for mineral wealth in the West making his fortune in borax mining, but also invested locally in real estate.   Innovating Borax’ Smith having a bunker was built at the railway car barn at the Laundry Farm Canyon site connecting an aerial cable tramways to the sulphur mines to transport over 200,000 ton of Iron Sulfide, known as Pyrite from the Leona Heights Mine,  later known as McDowell Mine. The mineral was trammed by aerial tramway down the hill to a sizing mill, crushed and shipped by railroad to Stauffer Chemical Company in Richmond for the manufacturing of sulfuric acid.

Macdam rock quarry – Oakland

Devouring the hillside

The rock quarries opened in 1909 a mile NE up the hill.  Three aerial and cable tramways hauled rock from the quarries, across hill, and down into Laundry Farm Canyon to the Car Barn site.  From there, the railroad  hauled the rock down from the hills.  It was used as macadam for local roadways and gets its name from John Loudon MacAdams, a process he invented 1816 using aggregate stone for road construction.  The quarry had the perfect quality rock needed to make up the three, two and smaller 3/4 inch stones for a macadam road.  It was later that they poured tar on the cracks between the laid stones so it would better support a load.    They gave the road mixture a new now familiar name…tarmac.

Mike & Roger Monroe

It was finally Saturday, Mike riding his bike to the school, then proceeding another ten blocks down Sunnymere Ave to where it turned east to intersect Mountain Blvd.  Mike’s anticipation bursting at the seams as he arrived at Rogers house on Kuhnle Ave, Roger nonchalantly saying let’s go.